Education For All People –  The Difference Between Being Smart, Educated, and Intelligent
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Education For All People – The Difference Between Being Smart, Educated, and Intelligent

Education For All People – The Difference Between Being Smart, Educated, and Intelligent

I've always been intrigued by the subject of intelligence. When I was a kid, my mother would say "smart," but I soon noticed that all parents were referring to their smart kids. Over time, I would discover that not all children are smart, just like all babies are not cute. If that were the case, we would have a world full of beautiful, intelligent people – which we do not have.

Some of us are smart; but not as smart as we think, and others are smarter than they seem, which makes me wonder, how do we define smart? What makes one person smarter than another? When does "street intelligence" matter more than "the intelligence of the book"? Can you be both clever and stupid? Is intelligence more a direct influence of genetics or its environment?

Then there are the problems of education, intelligence and wisdom.

What does it mean to be highly educated? What is the difference between being very educated and very intelligent? Does being highly educated automatically make you very smart? Can we be very intelligent without being highly educated? Do IQs really mean something? What makes a person wise? Why is wisdom typically associated with old age?

My desire to search for answers to these questions inspired many hours of intensive research that included reading 6 books, hundreds of research papers, and countless hours on the Internet; which pales in comparison to the lifetime of pioneering studies and research in the fields of intelligence and education as Howard Gardner, Richard Sternberg, Linda S. Gottfredson, Thomas Sowell, Alfie Kohn and Diane F. Halpern whose work is cited in this article.

My goal was simple: to collect, synthesize, and present data on what it means to be intelligent, educated, and intelligent so that it can be understood and used by anyone to their advantage.


With this in mind, there was no better place (or more suitable) to start than at the very beginning of our existence: as a fetus in the womb.

There is growing evidence that consuming iron-rich foods before and during pregnancy is essential for prenatal brain construction. The researchers found a strong association between low levels of iron during pregnancy and decreased IQ. Foods rich in iron include lima beans, kidney beans, pinto beans, spinach, asparagus, broccoli, seafood, nuts, dried fruits, oatmeal and cereals enriched.

Children with low levels of iron in utero (in the uterus) scored lower on each test and had significantly lower language skills, fine motor skills, and digestive capacity than children with higher levels of prenatal iron. Essentially, appropriate prenatal care is essential to the development of cognitive skills.


Cognitive skills are the basic mental abilities we use to think, study and learn. They include a wide variety of mental processes used to analyze sounds and images, recall information from memory, make associations between different pieces of information, and maintain focus on particular tasks. They can be identified and measured individually. The strength and effectiveness of cognitive skills are directly related to students. ease of learning.


Drinking during pregnancy is not smart. In fact, it's downright stupid.

A study by Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research showed that even mild to moderate consumption – particularly during the second trimester – is associated with lower IQs in children under 10 years of age. years. This result was especially pronounced among Afro-American descendants rather than Caucasians.

"IQ is a measure of the child's ability to learn and survive in his environment, he predicts the potential for success in school and in everyday life. Although a small but significant percentage of children receive an annual diagnosis of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), many more children are exposed to alcohol during pregnancy and do not meet the FAS criteria. Willford, Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine

Paul D. Connor, Clinical Director of the Fetal Alcohol and Drug Abuse Unit and Assistant Professor at the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences of the University of Washington. to say on the subject:

"There are a number of areas of cognitive functioning that can be altered even in the face of a normal and reliable IQ, including academic achievement (especially arithmetic), adaptive functioning and functions. (capacity to solve problems and learn from experiences) Deficits of intellectual functioning, success, adaptation and execution can make difficult the proper management of finances, autonomous functioning without assistance and understanding consequences – or the appropriate reaction – errors. "

This is a key finding that speaks directly to the (psychological) definition of intelligence that is discussed later in this article.


Studies have shown that frequent exposure of the human fetus to ultrasonic waves is associated with decreased body weight of the newborn, increased frequency of awkwardness and delayed speech

because ultrasonic energy is a high frequency mechanical vibration, the researchers hypothesized that it could influence the migration of neurons in a developing fetus. Neurons in mammals multiply early in fetal development and migrate to their final destinations Any disruption or disruption of the process could lead to abnormal brain function.

Commercial companies (which make ultrasounds for "memory" purposes) are now creating more powerful ultrasound machines capable of providing popular 3D and 4D images. The procedure, however, takes longer as they try to make 30 minute videos of the fetus in the uterus.

The leading magazine New Scientist reports that: Ultrasound can prevent cells from dividing and causing them to commit suicide. Routine tests, which have allowed doctors to take a look at fetuses and internal organs over the last 40 years, affect the normal cell cycle.

On the FDA website, this information is published on ultrasound:

While ultrasound has existed for many years, pregnant women and their families need to know that the long-term effects of repeated ultrasound exposures on the fetus are not fully known. In light of all that remains unknown, having an antenatal ultrasound for non-medical reasons is not a good idea.


Now that you know some of the known factors that determine, enhance and impact the intellectual development of a fetus, it's time for the design. Once this baby is born, who will be more critical in the development of his intellect: nature (genetics) or feed (the environment)?

For centers, scientists and psychologists have gone back and forth in this direction. I've read a lot of thorough studies and reports on this topic during the research phase of this article, and I believe it's time to put this debate to order of the day. Nature and education are equally important and must be fully observed in the intellectual development of all children. It should not be a proposal either.

A recent study shows that early intervention at home and in class can make a big difference to a child born in extreme poverty according to Eric Turkheimer, a psychologist at the University from Virginia to Charlottesville. . The study concludes that, although genetic makeup explains most IQ differences for children from affluent families, the environment – and not the genes – makes a greater difference for children from minorities in low-income households.

Specifically, what researchers call "heritability" – the degree of influence of genes on IQ – was significantly lower for poor families. "Once you're in a proper environment your genes start to take over," said Mr. Turkheimer, "but in poor environments the genes do not have that ability."

But there are reports that contradict these conclusions … in a way.

Linda S. Gottfredson, Professor of Educational Studies at the University of Delaware, wrote in her article, The General Intelligence Factor that environments shared by siblings have little to do with IQ. Many people still mistakenly believe that social, psychological and economic differences between families create lasting and marked differences in IQ.

She discovered that behavioral geneticists describe environmental effects as "shared" because they are common to siblings who grow up together. His reports indicate that the heritability of IQ increases with age; that is, the amount at which genetic counts for IQ differences between individuals increases as people get older.

In her article, she also explains to studies comparing the identical and fraternal twins, published in the last decade by a group led by Thomas J. Bouchard, Jr., of the University of Minnesota, and the University of Minnesota. other schools, show that about 40 percent of the IQ differences in preschool children come from genetic differences but this heritability increases to 60% by adolescence and at 80% at the end of adulthood.

And it is perhaps the most interesting piece of information, and relevant to this section of my article:

With age, the differences between individuals in their developed intelligence to reflect more closely their genetic differences. It seems that the effects of the environment on the intelligence fade instead of growing with time .

Bouchard concludes that young children are imposed the conditions of their lives by parents, schools and other agents of society, but as people get older, they become more independent and tend to look for the most sympathetic niches for their genetic inclinations.


Researchers at the New Zealand School of Medicine have studied more than 1,000 children born between April and August 1977. Between birth and the year, they collected how these children were fed.

The children were then followed up at the age of 18 years. Over the years, researchers have collected cognitive and academic information about children, including IQ, student performance in reading and math, and standardized test scores. understanding, mathematics and academic ability. The researchers also examined the number of marks obtained in the national exams at the end of secondary school at the end of the third year of secondary school.

The results indicated that the more children were breastfed, the more points they scored on these tests.


Thomas Sowell, Author of Race, IQ, Black Crime, and the Facts The Liberals Ignore Gathered Fascinating Information Each parent should take note of. He writes:

There is a strong case that black Americans suffer from a variety of disadvantageous environments. Studies repeatedly show that before going to school, black children are on average exposed to a narrower vocabulary than white children, partly because of socio-economic factors.

While children in professional households typically exhibit 2,150 different words each day, children in blue-collar households are exposed to 1,250 and children in social-assistance households barely 620.

Yes, smart the children surveyed tend to come from an educational, professional and two-sided environment, where they acquire language skills and valuable vocabulary from their inhabitants who sound smart.

million. Sowell continues: Black children are obviously not to blame for their poor socio-economic status, but something beyond the economic situation is at work in black homes. Blacks have not enrolled in the "big mission" of the white middle class – the constant quest to stimulate intellectual growth and bring their child to Harvard or Oxbridge.

Elsie Moore, of Arizona State University, in Phoenix, studied black children adopted by black or white parents, all middle-class professionals. At the age of 7.5, those who lived in black houses were 13 points behind those raised in white houses.


At this point in my research, it has appeared, and should be quite obvious, that many children are predisposed to be intelligent, educated and intelligent, simply by their exposure to the influential factors that determined them long before they started school.

An informed mother, adequate prenatal care, educated and communicative parents, and a stimulating environment in which to live, all add to the accumulated benefits that build intellectual abilities. As you can see, some children have unfair advantages from the start.

Malcolm Gladwell, author of the bestseller Outliers, writes that "accumulated benefits" are made possible by arbitrary rules … and that such unjust benefits are everywhere. "Those who are successful are most likely to benefit from social opportunities that lead to other successes," he writes. "It is the rich who get the biggest tax breaks, the best students get the best education and attention.

With this in mind, we turn to education and intelligence.


Alfie Kohn, author of the book What does it mean to be well educated? Does the question well educated refer to a school grade you received, or something about yourself? Does this indicate what you have been taught? Or what do you remember?

I maintain that to be well educated, everything is in the application; the application and use of information. The information was to use to become knowledge, and as we all heard, knowledge is power.

Most people are aware of the state of disrepair of education in this country at a certain level. We tell our children that nothing is more important than having a "good" education, and every year, because of budget deficits, teachers are fired, courses are condensed, schools are closed and many educational programs – especially those that help the disadvantaged – are cut off.

In reality, we do not give much importance to education. We like it as a business, an industry, political ammunition and as a form of accepted discrimination, but not for what it was meant for: a way to enrich its character and life by l & # 39; ;learning.

What we value as a society is the athletes and the entertainment that they offer. The fact that a professional athlete earns more money in a season, what most teachers in any region will do in their careers, is abominable. There is always money to build new sports stadiums, but not enough to give teachers a decent (and well deserved) increase.

Ironically, the best teachers do not enter the profession for money. They teach because it's a call. Most of them were influenced by a very good teacher as a student. With the massive exodus of teachers, many students are not able to cultivate mentoring relationships once they've been able to do so because many leave the profession – voluntarily and unintentionally – on average three years .

At the high school level, where I started, the emphasis is not on how to educate students to prepare them for life, or even to teach them how to do it. University (all high schools should be colleges, is not it?) was to prepare them to excel on their standardized tests.Then the controversial "exit" exams were implemented and, literally, of many high schools have been turned into test centers.Learning has almost become secondary.

This mentality continues in college, which of course is a test that we must follow for sure. (SAT or ACT) This explains why so many students are more concerned about the completion of a course than to learn from it. obtaining "A" and degrees, instead of becoming graduate thinkers, who are increasingly sought after by employers and 9 The essence of the self-employed The state of mind "getting the right grade" is directly attributable to the incessant and often unnecessary tests that our students undergo in schools.

Alfie Kohn advocates the "exhibition" of learning, in which students reveal their understanding through in-depth projects, mission portfolios, and other events.

He cites a model invented by Ted Sizer and Deborah Meier. Meier stressed the importance for students to have five "habits of mind", namely: the value of asking questions about evidence ("How do we know this What do we know? "), Point of View, (" What perspective does it represent? ") connections (" How is this related to this? "), Assumption ] ("How could things have been otherwise?"), And relevance ("Why is this important?").

Kohn writes: It's only the ability to to raise and answer these questions that matters, however, but also the willingness to do so.Furthermore, any set of intellectual goals, any description of what it means to think deeply and critically, should be accompanied by a reference to the intrinsic interest or motivation to make such a reflection … to be well educated then, is to have the desire as well as the means to ensure that learning never ends …


We have always wanted to measure the intelligence. Ironically, when you look at some of the early methods used to evaluate it in the 1800s, they were not very smart. Tactics such as subjecting people to various forms of torture to see what their pain threshold was (the more you could stand to grin, the more you were supposed to be smart), or test your ability to detect a high-pitched sound that others could not not hear.

Things have changed … or do they have them?

No discussion of intelligence or IQ can be complete without mentioning Alfred Binet, a French psychologist who was responsible for laying the groundwork for the IQ test in 1904. His initial intention was to devise a test that would diagnose learning disorders in students. La France. The test results were then used to prepare special programs to help students overcome their academic difficulties.

It was never intended to be used as absolute measure of his intellectual abilities.

According to Binet, intelligence could not be described as a single score. He said that using the intelligence quotient (IQ) as a definitive statement of a child's intellectual ability would be a serious mistake. In addition, Binet was concerned that the measure of IQ could be used to condemn a child to a permanent "condition" of stupidity, thus negatively affecting his education and livelihood.

The initial interest was in the assessment of mental age & # 39; – the average level of intelligence for a person of a given age. His creation, the Binet-Simon test (originally called "scale"), was the archetype of future tests of intelligence.

HH Goddard, research director at the Vineland Training School in New Jersey, translated Binet's work into English and advocated a more general application of the Simon-Binet test. Unlike Binet, Goddard viewed intelligence as a solitary, fixed, innate entity that could be measured. With the help of Lewis Terman of Stanford University, his final product, published in 1916 under the Stanford Revision name of Binet-Simon Scale of Intelligence (also known as Stanford-Binet), became the standard intelligence test in the United States.

It is important to note that the error on the IQ is that it is corrected and can not be changed. The fact is that IQ scores are known to fluctuate – both upwards and down during one's life. This does not mean that you become more or less intelligent, it simply means that you have better tested one day than the other.

One more thing to know about IQ tests: They have been used for racist purposes since their importation into the United States. Many who participated in the import and improvement of these tests believed that IQ was hereditary. fallacy that it is a "fixed" trait.

Many immigrants were tested in the 1920s and failed miserably in these IQ tests. As a result, many of them were denied entry to the United States, or were forced to undergo sterilization for fear of populating America with "stupid" and "inferior" babies. ". If you remember, the tests were designed for white Americans of the middle class. Who do you think would have the most difficulty passing them?

Lewis Terman developed the original IQ notification and proposed this scale for classifying IQ scores:

000 – 070: Definitive Weakness
070 – 079: Borderline Deficiency
080 – 089: Dullness
090 – 109: Normal or average intelligence
110 – 119: Higher intelligence
115 – 124: Above average (for example, university students)
125 – 134: Gifted (p Ex.
135 – 144: Very talented (eg intellectuals)
145 – 154: Engineering (eg, professors)
155 – 164: Engineering (eg, Laureates of the Nobel Prize)
165 – 179: Great Genius
180 – 200: Supreme Genius
200 – Higher ?: Immeasurable Genius

* The awesome IQ is generally considered to start around 140 to 145, representing only 25% of the population (1 in 400).
* Einstein was considered to have "only" an IQ of 160.


Diane F. Halpern, psychologist and former president of the American Psychological Association (APA), writes in her contribution to Why smart people can be so stupid that in general, we recognize people as intelligent if they have a combination of these achievements (1) good grades in school; (2) a high level of education; (3) responsible and complex work; (4) another recognition of being smart, such as winning prestigious awards or earning a significant salary; (5) the ability to read complex text with a good understanding; (6) solve the difficulty and new problems.

Throughout my research and in the early stages of this article, I found several definitions of the word intelligence. Some were long, others were short. Some that I could not even understand. The most common definition is that created by APA which is the ability to adapt to one's environment and learn from one's mistakes.

And that? There is still the word environment. We can not seem to escape it. This adds a deeper meaning to the saying: "When in Rome, do like the Romans." It means recognizing what's happening in your environment and making sure that the intelligence adapts to it – and the people who care for it – in order to survive and succeed within it.

There are also many different forms of intelligence. More specifically those created by Dr. Howard Gardner, professor of education at Harvard University.

Dr. Gardner believes (and I agree) that our schools and culture focus the bulk of their attention on linguistic and logico-mathematical intelligence. We value highly articulated or logical people of our culture. However, Dr. Gardner says that we should also give equal attention to individuals who show gifts in other intelligences: artists, architects, musicians, naturalists, designers, dancers, therapists, entrepreneurs and others who enrich the world in which we live. live.

He felt that traditional IQ-based information reporting was far too limited and created the Theory of Multiple Intelligences in 1983 to explain a broader range of human potential among children and adults.

These intelligences are:

Linguistic Intelligence ("intelligent word")
Logical-mathematical Intelligence ("number / intelligent reasoning")
Space Intelligence ("intelligent image")
Kinesthetic Body intelligence ("body smart")
Musical Intelligence ("intelligent music")
Interpersonal Intelligence ("smart people")
Intrapersonal Intelligence ("self smart")
Naturalistic Intelligence ("intelligent nature")

Not associated with Dr. Gardner, but equally respected are:


According to, psychologist Raymond Cattell was 39; first proposed the concepts of fluid and crystalline intelligence and developed the theory with John Horn .The Cattell-Horn theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence suggests that intelligence is composed of: some no mbre de capacités différentes qui interagissent et travaillent ensemble pour produire une intelligence individuelle globale.

Cattell a défini l'intelligence fluide comme "… la capacité de percevoir des relations indépendantes de la pratique spécifique précédente ou de l'instruction concernant ces relations." L'intelligence fluide est la capacité de penser et de raisonner de manière abstraite et de résoudre des problèmes. Cette capacité est considérée comme indépendante de l'apprentissage, de l'expérience et de l'éducation. Des exemples de l'utilisation de l'intelligence fluide comprennent la résolution de casse-tête et de proposer des stratégies de résolution de problèmes.

L'intelligence cristallisée apprend des expériences passées et apprend . Les situations qui nécessitent une intelligence cristallisée comprennent la compréhension en lecture et les examens de vocabulaire. Ce type d'intelligence est basé sur des faits et orienté dans des expériences. Ce type d'intelligence devient plus fort à mesure que nous vieillissons et accumulons de nouvelles connaissances et de la compréhension.

Les deux types d'intelligence augmentent pendant l'enfance et l'adolescence. L'intelligence des fluides culmine à l'adolescence et commence à décliner progressivement vers l'âge de 30 ou 40 ans. L'intelligence cristallisée continue de croître à l'âge adulte.


Puis il y a Successful Intelligence qui est écrit par le psychiatre de l'intelligence et professeur de Yale, Robert J. Sternberg, qui croit que tout le concept de relier le quotient intellectuel à l'accomplissement de la vie est erroné, parce qu'il croit que le QI est un prédicteur assez misérable de l'accomplissement de la vie.

Sa théorie de l'intelligence réussie se concentre sur 3 types d'intelligence qui sont combinés pour contribuer au succès global de l'un: Intelligence analytique ; étapes mentales ou composants utilisés pour résoudre des problèmes; Intelligence créative : l'utilisation de l'expérience d'une manière qui favorise la compréhension (créativité / pensée divergente); et Intelligence pratique : la capacité de lire et de s'adapter aux contextes de la vie quotidienne.

En ce qui concerne l'environnement, M. Sternberg écrit dans son livre Successful Intelligence : Les gens qui réussissent intelligemment réalisent que l'environnement dans lequel ils se trouvent peut ou ne peut pas tirer le meilleur parti de leurs talents. Ils recherchent activement un environnement dans lequel ils peuvent non seulement réussir leur travail, mais faire la différence. Ils créent des opportunités plutôt que de laisser les opportunités être limitées par les circonstances dans lesquelles ils se trouvent.

En tant qu'éducatrice, je souscris à l'approche de M. Sternberg en matière d'intelligence réussie à l'enseignement. Il s'est avéré être un outil très efficace et un état d'esprit pour mes étudiants. Utiliser l'intelligence réussie comme pilier de mon programme axé sur le contexte inspire vraiment les élèves à voir comment l'éducation rend leurs objectifs de vie plus accessibles et les motive à développer davantage leur expertise. M. Sternberg croit que le facteur principal dans la réalisation de l'expertise est un engagement ciblé.


Dans son best-seller de 1995, Intelligence émotionnelle, Daniel Goleman rapporte que la recherche montre que les mesures classiques de l'intelligence – QI – ne représentent que 20% d'une personne. s succès dans la vie. Par exemple, la recherche sur le QI et l'éducation montre qu'un QI élevé précède 10 à 25% des notes au collège. Le pourcentage varie en fonction de la façon dont nous définissons le succès. Néanmoins, l'affirmation de Goleman soulève la question: Qu'est-ce qui explique les 80% restants?

Vous l'avez deviné … Intelligence émotionnelle. Qu'est-ce que c'est exactement l'intelligence émotionnelle? L'intelligence émotionnelle (aussi appelée EQ ou EI) fait référence à la capacité à percevoir, contrôler et évaluer les émotions. De nombreuses entreprises ont maintenant une formation obligatoire en matière de QE pour leurs gestionnaires dans le but d'améliorer les relations entre les employés et d'accroître la productivité.


Vous avez entendu la phrase, "L'expérience est le plus grand professeur …"

Dans les cercles de psychologie, les connaissances acquises par l'expérience quotidienne sont appelé connaissance tacite . Le terme familier est «débrouillardise», ce qui implique que l'enseignement formel en classe (alias «livre intelligent») n'a rien à voir avec cela. L'individu n'est pas directement instruit sur ce qu'il ou elle devrait apprendre, mais doit plutôt extraire la leçon importante de l'expérience même si l'apprentissage n'est pas l'objectif principal.

La connaissance tacite est étroitement liée au bon sens, qui est un jugement sain et prudent basé sur une perception simple de la situation ou des faits . Comme vous le savez, le bon sens n'est pas si commun.

Tacit knowledge, or the lessons obtained from it, seems to "stick" both faster and better when the lessons have direct relevance to the individual's goals. Knowledge that is based on one's own practical experience will likely be more instrumental to achieving one's goals than will be knowledge that is based on someone else's experience, or that is overly generic and abstract.


Yes, it's possible to be both smart and stupid. I'm sure someone you know comes to mind at this precise moment. But the goal here is not to ridicule, but to understand how some seemingly highly intelligent, or highly educated individuals can be so smart in one way, and incredibly stupid in others.

The woman who is a respected, well paid, dynamic executive who consistently chooses men who do not appear to be worthy of her, or the man who appears to be a pillar of the community, with a loving wife and happy kids, ends up being arrested on rape charges.

It happens, but why? I found the answer in Why Smart People Can Be So Stupid . Essentially, intellect is domain specific. In other words, being smart (knowledgeable) in one area of ​​your life, and stupid (ignorant) in another is natural. Turning off one's brain is quite common especially when it comes to what we desire. A shared character among those who are smart and stupid, is the difficulty in delaying gratification.

Olem Ayduk & Walter Mischel who wrote the chapter summarized: Sometimes stupid behavior in smart people may arise from faulty expectations, erroneous beliefs, or purely a lack of motivation to enforce control strategies even when one has them. But sometimes it is an inability to regulate one's affective states and the behavioral tendencies associated with them that leads to stupid and self-defeating behavior.

The central character in this book who many of these lessons regarding being smart and stupid revolve around is Bill Clinton and his affair with Monica Lewinksky.


My great grandmother, Leola Cecil, maybe had an 8th grade education at the most. By no stretch of the imagination she was highly educated, but she had what seemed like infinite wisdom. She was very observant and could "read" people with starting accuracy. Till the very end of her life she shared her "crystallized intelligence" with whomever was receptive to it.

She died at the age of 94. I often use many of her sayings as a public speaker, but most importantly, I use her philosophies to make sure that I'm being guided spiritually and not just intellectually. Many of us who are lucky enough to have a great grandparent can testify that there is something special about their knowledge. They seem to have life figured out, and a knack for helping those of us who are smart, educated and intelligent see things more clearly when we are too busy thinking.

What they have is what we should all aspire to end up with if we are lucky: wisdom.

Wisdom is the ability to look through a person, when others can only look at them. Wisdom slows down the thinking process and makes it more organic; synchronizing it with intuition. Wisdom helps you make better judgments regarding decisions, and makes you less judgmental. Wisdom is understanding without knowing, and accepting without understanding. Wisdom is recognizing what's important to other people, and knowing that other people are of the utmost importance to you. Wisdom is both a starting point, and a final conclusion.

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